Financial instruments

Financial assets and liabilities are recognised in the consolidated balance sheet when the Group becomes a party to the contractual provisions governing the financial instrument.

Financial instruments are generally recognised at fair value. When determining fair value, three assessment categories are differentiated between:

Level 1:

  • At the first level of the “fair value hierarchy”, fair values are determined using publicly quoted market prices, as the best-possible objective indication of the fair value of a financial asset or liability can be observed on an active market.

Level 2:

  • If there is no active market for an instrument, a company determines the fair value using measurement models. These models include use of the most recent arm’s-length transactions between knowledgeable and willing parties, comparison with the current fair value of another, essentially identical financial instrument, use of the discounted cash flow method and option pricing models. The fair value is estimated on the basis of the results of a method of measurement that uses data from the market to the greatest possible extent and is based as little as possible on company-specific data.

Level 3:

  • The measurement models used for this level are based on parameters that are not observable on the market.

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